Meimankulova Nazbiike, Reporter
How many times have you checked the clock today? As we all know, the first thing we do early in the morning is check the time in order not to be late for school or work. Now let's imagine for a moment that clocks do not exist in the world. How would we live without knowing the time? How could we schedule a meeting or not be late for school? Everything would be chaotic if you imagine such situations without clocks. Today let's learn more about the various instruments of time - clocks and the process of its development.
● A Solar Clock Made Of A Single Piece Of Stone - Obelisk
An obelisk is an important part of Egyptian architecture, which plays a role of a sundial. It is a stone rectangular column with a conical top that forms a pyramid, which was often covered with an alloy of gold and silver. All four sides of the obelisk's shaft are decorated with hieroglyphs, which characteristically include religious dedications to the sun god “Ra”. The Egyptians called them "tekkenu", which means "to pierce", as in "piercing the sky." But later, the Greek traveler Herodotus first wrote about the obelisks and called it an "obelisk". Today, the highest obelisk in the world is the Washington Monument, which was built in 1848 and is has a height of 169,046 m.
● Star Clock - Merkhet
A Star Clock, known to Egyptians as a Merkhet, is an ancient Egyptian timekeeping tool used to tell time at night. It was very accurate, and the device is simple, consisting of a linear rod attached to a plumb line, a weighted line, that can be used to set a straight vertical line to the ground. A Merkhet was oriented to the northern star, and the second was used to create the meridian North-South. This line can be used to align the structure or as a reference point for tracking the movement of stars in the sky. The word "merkhet" means "an instrument of knowledge," and the merkhets were powerful tools for more detailed information about the night. With the creation of the merkhet, people could make much more accurate scientific observations, which this undoubtedly influenced Egyptian mythology and cosmology.
● Water Thief - Clepsydra
The water clock, Clepsydra, was used in Babylon and Egypt in 1600 B.C. Then the use of water watches was started in Greece and Rome. The ancient Greeks called the water clock "klepsydra," which means "water thief", which comes from "kleptein" - "steal" and "hydor" - "water". In the design of the water clock, there was a vessel that was filled with water, which could escape through the hole. The interior of the vessel was marked with graduated lines, and the time was read by measuring the level of the remaining water. The Clepsydra clock was put forward by that time and had a different design, which depended on the location or culture of each country. The water clock was usually decorated with gold and treasures. The Romans determined the length of the speeches of the speakers in the court using a water clock.
● A Quartz Clock – The Beginning of The Clock Revolution
Quartz watches are used by the most majority of people. Quartz watches are the watches in which an electronic oscillator is regulated by a quartz crystal oscillator based on the frequency of one second. The first quartz crystal oscillator was built in 1921, but the piezoelectric properties of quartz were discovered earlier, in 1880. The first quartz clock was built by Warren Marrison and J.W.Horton at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1927. From the 1930s to the mid-1960s, the use of quartz was in the field of navigation, astronomy and some state communication equipment. In the 1960s, research and development of quartets were active and quartz crystals combined with cesium switched to atomic clocks. After seven years, the world meets the world's first prototypes of analog quartz wristwatches.
● Most Accurate Time Gauge Invention - Atomic Clocks
The first atomic clock was an ammonia maser device built in 1949. It was less accurate than the existing quartz watches but served to demonstrate the concept. Later, the first accurate atomic clocks were built by Louis Essen and Jack Parry in 1955 at the National Physical Laboratory of Great Britain. The two most widely used atomic clocks in recent years have been the atomic clock with cesium, and the rubidium clock. Such clocks have provided the accuracy needed to test the general theory of relativity and to track pulsar frequency oscillations. Atomic clocks play an important role in navigation. The location of space vehicles, satellites, ballistic missiles, aircrafts, submarines, as well as the movement of vehicles in automatic mode with the help of satellite communications (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo) is unthinkable without atomic clocks.
● Your Own Clock - Biological Clock
It is a functioning organ that plays a periodic rhythm. Inside the body there is a kind of clock that controls the rhythm of the human body depending on the time, which is called a biological clock. In other words, it is known that the temperature of a person's body constantly changes depending on the night and daytime, even if it lies all day or in the dark. This fact indicates that there is a certain rhythm within the plant or animal. The biological clock plays the role of a direct regulator of the structure of sleep, control of temperature and changes in blood pressure in humans and has a great influence on the endocrine system, the immune system, the circulatory system, the secretion system. It is known that animals act day and night on a biological clock, but it is not clear how a biological clock informs our body of time information.
All the generations of men have always valued the most important instruments of time - clocks. We can know this by looking at all these long processes of its development and human efforts to this day. And this is not the end of the development of clocks, because from day to day technology, science is getting better and better. As in the case of such advanced watch technologies, it is expected that other technologies will develop in the future. Let us all wait for the next unique and accurate hours. We are looking forward for the new ones.